Secondary Intake Pt 3

At the end of this project, I remembered when I was roughly 12 years of age, I was into making model spaceships.  I had picked up a magazine about Scratch Building.  Initially it was to make a diorama for my scale models.  But it grew on to making a complete spaceship out of two aluminium cans and one plastic cap.  The cap became the engine exhaust.  I had painted it white and took a picture of it with black paper as the background.   That was my experience with working with house hold items.

View of internal of air scoop.

What air would see before being sucked

I wanted to cap off this project with something spectacular.  But then I kept reminding myself of the reason why I did this.  It is to make things as simple as can be.  Hopefully it would inspire ordinary men on the streets to come out with their own ideas in increasing efficiencies of anything they have.  All the items I used can be bought from the nearest hardware store.  Even the tools; which is a knife.  That is the beauty of science; it does not limit to rich people, it does not want to burden people.  In fact it enlightens to those who seek it.  It does not provide the glitzy glamour of a high priced premium aftermarket which endears the modding community here.  But it does save money for the rest of the working people.  If they could only open their eyes to possibilities.

I decided to increase the intake are of the flexible pipe by having a scoop.

Recycle Reuse Reborn

If you are like me, I have a shed which I keep all chemicals, paint, thinner and lubes stored on the top shelf.  I had a small bottle of Automatic Transmission Oil which is quarter full.  The shape of the bottle was interesting.  It had a sloping line before it meets the cap.  It also had different radiuses as its edge.  This was significant to meeting my requirement.  The hole where I inserted the front end of the intake has a matching shape.  When I tried it on it was a perfect match.

I had to cut the hose further as the bottle will be using up the length.  I inserted into the bottle’s neck and taped it with Electrical Tape.  I then inserted this below the headlight cluster and left it there.  It fit snugly and there was no need to tie down the white hose further.

While feeling satisfied at how the project turned out, one can never truly be complacent.  What was very apparent from the beginning was that I was toying with household items which others never think of being an engineered product.  What may be difficult to find 10 years ago, has become common and the price of these have gone down.  While I would be most challenged to make a purpose built equipment, nothing beats simplicity.  This mod project truly embodies the reason for this blog.  Anyone could do this project.  He doesn’t need to have an AutomotiveFits nice and snug

Engineering degree.  Its just a matter of wanting and how bad you want it.
Tonight I took the family out to take an opportunity to test the set up with full load.  It was satisfactory.  “Sorry bout that Mr. CR-Z! I’m doing an experiment!”

Summary

I am just about finished with this project.  Even though its a relatively short testing period, I am well convinced that it has met its objective.  The objective was to reduce average fuel consumption.  The method is not new but I believe it is for this Proton model.  People may think that just because it works for a highly engineered product that it will not work on others.  They are well and truly misjudging its benefit and impact.  An engine in an old car is still an engine in a new one.  The fundamentals remain the same.  I have now increased the fuel efficiency of the car by 30% in Highway mode.  It should reflect a fuel saving of not less than 20% on average through the entire journey.  But I seriously doubt  it could improve the FC during idling.  That is a project to be done in another day.  I look forward to working with others on a similar project.

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Secondary Intake Pt 2

It is hard to write down the results of the test on the road.  It is hard because I have been very ecstatic about the results.  It has been two days of consecutive tests.  Repetitive results would provide an assurance that the reading was not a fluke.  And that is exactly what has happened.  The first day and second day results were the same.

Testing method was by observing the onboard Fuel Consumption meter, having the car maintaining 80km/h speed.   Location of tests were two; from Putrajaya to LDP Toll on my drive to work and from USJ exit to

PutrajayaTest 3 results Toll on the Elite Highway.  After two consecutive days, we can safely say that both readings were the same.

Putrajaya to LDP: 4.0l/100km

USJ to Putrajaya: 3.5l/100km

I use two different route as my daily travel plan on weekdays.  Therefore the test would provide me estimates on the effect of the modification towards my daily travel costs.  The second day of tests, I had become impatient on the way I should do these tests.  So on the return trip.  I did two separate tests; one at 70km/h and the other at 80km/h.  I had video taken to show that the consumption was 3.3l/100km when driven at 70.  Which is even more fuel savings.
Some friends were concerned about the fuel savings on actual performance.  I cannot say if there was any negative performance effect as I wanted to do this mod for Economy and not to increase power.  But I must say that the question has intrigued me. I look forward to making my own video stand to clamp on the seat headrest.  This will provide datalogging capabilities.

Debunking Myths

Some people I know do not want to take the reading seriously as many doubt the accuracy of the onboard computer.  Some would want me to do the ‘Fill up full at the Tank’ method.   When we take measurements, we need to reduce variance as much as possible to get closer to the truth.  Setting the datum at the petrol kiosk has several fundamental problems.

a) How do you know that you are actually filling up to the full?  An empty petrol tank can only be found on a car that is not running. A partial tank in reserve can contain 5 litres or less.  How much less?  We cannot possibly know.

b) When you fill up to the max, there’s two problems one is engineering wise and the other is behavioral

i)  You can never know whether a pump has delivered the correct amount of fuel you require by measuring at the fuel tank scale.  The scale of the meter is huge compared to the resolution we are trying to find out.

ii) If you are driving on full tank, then you think that this is just a game.  Someone who drives will a full tank all day is bringing with him weight that he does not need.  Carry only what you need.

They probably need to know how the FC reading works.  Its is pretty much simple.  The ECU controls the triggers to the fuel injectors.  All it needs is to count how many firing of the injectors were done since the event of the reset button press.  It multiplies the number of firings against the number of injectors, multiplies it against the flow capacity of the injectors and take the trip meter reading since button press.  The trip meter or distance measured is based on a magnetic pickup on the driven wheel which is fed directly to the ECU.

If you limit the use of the FC reading to measuring at constant speed and relatively short distance, then it is good enough.

Secondary Intake Pt 1

I had the old type snorkel for more than a year now. It came out as standard fitting for Neo in 2006. It was replaced by a flexible corrugated type in the CPS model that came out circa 2010. That of the 1st Gen Neo is jokingly known around the Proton user fraternity as the Elephant’s Snorkel due to its larger size. It is still in use by Proton Motorsport in their race machines for the Malaysian Super Series. MSS has 5 rounds. Proton Motorsports currently is the champion in the Sports Touring class with one round to go in November.

This snorkel has a 50mm hole just before the main tract curves to the side of the air box. Originally this hole is connected to a short right angled tube. I assume it is either for a water trap or for attenuating sound. Whatever it was, it has been gone for a while. It has been a source of leak for hot engine air to enter the engine. I had initially put duct tape to plug it. After a few hours, the duct tape would puncture. This would indicate that a vacuum situation had developed during driving. This therefore indicates that the current snorkel is insufficient to take on all demands of the airflow requirement. A quick calculation, assuming that the engine has 90% Volume Efficiency with Max RPM at 7500rpm, it would require a flow of 190 CFM. Which translates to 5,380 litre/min. Now assuming air is still and we estimate that the air moves at 210km/h. This translates to having the air intake size at 44mm diameter. That should be the minimum size of the intake to the throttle body. The throttle body itself has a size of 70mm. If there is restriction, therefore it would create a vacuum. Vacuum is created in any pressure loss throughout the length of the intake tract.

Hose enters the snorkel from beneath and sealed with Electrical Tape.

The snorkel main cross sectional size is 115mm x 58mm with a wall thickness as 4mm on average.  Therefore the cross sectional area is approximately 107mm x 50mm which makes it 5350mm2.  A 70mm diameter should have an area of 3848mm2.  This would have us accept that the current snorkel has 39% more area than required.  Which would be true if we did not take into account losses and what is known as the hydraulic radius of a conduit.  Ideally the intake snorkel must have a hydraulic radius of 70mm after taking into account all the hydraulic losses due to bends and restrictions. Even though the Airbox is of significant volume, air flow remains the same. Its effect is only as a vessel to minimize effect of sudden flow demand such as during increased engine load and acceleration.

On Monday, 8 September 2012, before returning to home, I had decided that if I delayed doing something about the leak, its going to cost me valuable fuel money.  I stopped by a hardware shop, 5 min from my house and bought a flexible hose meant for the drainage of a typical washing machine. I installed it and planned to make observations to the fuel consumption using the onboard fuel computer.

My first recording of the series of test started after sending all my kids to school and proceeded to exit Putrajaya on an almost empty three lane road.  I maintained the speed of 80km/h for a few seconds before resetting the Average Consumption calculation.  It normally will start showing the record after a distance of 500m.  Immediately I saw the reading as 4.0 l/100km and it rises slightly to 4.3 at the end of approximately 20km of driving distance.  Beyond this distance, traffic made it difficult to maintain a constant speed.

Other than immediate consumption, I also wanted to find out whether it is going to improve my daily average of 6.3l/100km, which it did.  But this is also difficult to measure as traffic situation changes on a daily basis.  The most consumption is definitely when the car is not moving in a que for the Subang toll plaza.  But I just needed to know.

The second recording was on the return trip back home with an estimated distance of 40km.  This readout gave an average of 4.3l/100km.  So at least for the duration of the day, the consumption reading was good.

Enters the subframe

Intermediate length

Intermediate length

In preparation for tomorrow’s test, I have moved the location to close behind the front light cluster.  We’ll see how it goes.

How to drive fast News, Videos, Reviews and Gossip – Jalopnik

How to drive fast News, Videos, Reviews and Gossip – Jalopnik.

The title of the article seems a bit extreme. But when you read it, in truth it still does promote braking before the corner.  The question is when do you bring the power on.  When we take into account front wheel drive cars, where the weight distribution is biased towards the front wheels, then it makes more sense.

A front heavy car would understeer easily.  Manufacturers tend to like it this way as it is easily corrected by a novice driver.  Reduce the throttle and you bring back traction to the front where the tyres now steers better at reduced lateral or sliding force.  It is another ideology that the sum result of force is always at a fixed value.  The only part that differs is the force of acceleration.  Due to inherent design of a car, in an acceleration, the car loses energy very quickly.  This is caused by wind resistance, bigger contact area being subjected to the road as opposed to sliding.

The Satria Neo R3 comes standard with a front splitter.  It functions to provide vertical force when driven at speed. as expected when you accelerate out of a corner.  This added vertical force, keeps the front tyres down to provide more traction when exiting a corner.  This is about the only function that serves the car well.  In normal straight line, constant speed, the force is minimal.  You can see this as forward acceleration results in more downforce.  Force, being a result of mass and acceleration.  If there was to be forward force, acceleration must accompany.

If you look at the design of the splitter, its leveled straight on the underside.  If it was not flat, you would cause dense air to enter the engine bay and mix with the lowered pressure of hot air from the radiator.  This would cause a positive lift and therefore reduced grip on the tyres.  Therefore lies the conundrum.  A flat surface helps in keeping airflow turbulence in check.